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Inflammation is a localised or generalised bodily response to injury, infection or disease. It is characterised by four key signs: rubor (redness), calor (heat), tumor (swelling) and dolor (pain). Neuroinflammation is the specific inflammation (short term or chronic) of the nervous system (brain & spinal cord). Neuroinflammation is present in a variety of brain diseases including neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury and prolonged stress, to name a few examples.